Nepal Development Research Initiative Pvt. Ltd.

Research & Development

Research and development (R&D) is a process of developing new products, processes and technologies that are used for the benefits and welfare of human beings. Investment on R&D therefore is crucial for a nation’s progress and international competitiveness in an age of globalization. The following table shows the recent global trend in the growth of spending on R&D.

Expenditures on Research & Development:



Gross Expenditure of R & D:



Gross Expenditure of R&D as % of GDP:



Gross Expenditure of R&D as % of GDP:



Share of Global R & D Expenditures(%) by Region:



Researchers per Million Population:



Doctoral Graduate in Selected Countries:


Scientific Publications:


• During 2010-2012 on an average 2.7 % of the GDP was devoted to R&D in North America while only 0.4% of the GDP was invested on R&D in continental Africa.
• Only 0.5% of the World’s researchers live in the least developed countries. The European Union shares about 20% and North America 22% of the World’s researchers.
• Among all researchers only 27% were women.

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